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Berlin 1945

Berlin 1945 „Versprich mir, dass du dich erschießt, wenn die Russen kommen“

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berlin 1945

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Berlin 1945 Video

The Russian Army looks as tired as the defeated German soldiers. This is Berlin in May , a summer most people that were there would never forget.

This is why Berlin — Photos of the Aftermath is such an important book. The pictures inside this book show a glimpse of Berlin during the last moments of the Third Reich.

These pictures were taken by Red Army photographers as the German Army was surrendering. Here you can finally see how impressive the destruction of Berlin really was.

Berlin — Photos of the Aftermath shows the world heart wrenching pictures that were never seen before. Most of them were taken before the rest of the Allied Forces got to Berlin in July During those months, the Soviet Military Administration broadcasted what was happening in Berlin into the world.

The news reports were filled with the pictures that you can see in this book and almost disappeared after being forgotten in an archive for almost fifty years.

A testimony of the final breathe of a city that would never be the same. A testimony of the final battle and of the death of a city.

This was Berlin in and these photos depict a unusual and disturbing normalcy that feels grotesque somehow.

But this is what the survivors of that gruesome war can be seen doing in these pictures. Berlin — Photos of the Aftermath is split in ten chapters filled with large back and white pictures of the aftermath.

Although killing German civilians was never an explicit policy, it was obvious that area bombing would cause large-scale civilian casualties.

With the technology available at the time, the precision bombing of military targets was possible only by daylight and it was difficult even then.

Daylight bombing raids conducted by Bomber Command involved unacceptably high losses of British aircraft, and bombing by night led to far lower British losses, but was of necessity indiscriminate due to the difficulties of nocturnal navigation and bomb aiming.

Before , Berlin, at kilometres miles from London, was at the extreme range attainable by the British bombers then available to the Allied forces.

It could be bombed only at night in summer when the days were longer and skies clear—which increased the risk to Allied bombers.

The first RAF raid on Berlin took place on the night of 25 August ; 95 aircraft were dispatched to bomb Tempelhof Airport near the center of Berlin and Siemensstadt , of which 81 dropped their bombs in and around Berlin, [11] [12] and while the damage was slight, the psychological effect on Hitler was greater.

The bombing raids on Berlin prompted Hitler to order the shift of the Luftwaffe's target from British airfields and air defenses to British cities, at a time during the Battle of Britain when the British air defenses were becoming exhausted and overstretched.

In the following two weeks there were a further five raids of a similar size, all nominally precision raids at specific targets, [12] but with the difficulties of navigating at night the bombs that were dropped were widely dispersed.

The raids grew more frequent in , but were ineffective in hitting important targets. The head of the Air Staff of the RAF, Sir Charles Portal , justified these raids by saying that to "get four million people out of bed and into the shelters" was worth the losses involved.

The Soviet Union started a bombing campaign on Berlin on 8 August that extended into early September. Navy bombers, operating from the Moonzund Archipelago conducted 8 raids to Berlin with 3—12 aircraft in each raid.

Army bombers, operating from near Leningrad, executed several small raids to Berlin. In total in , 33 Soviet aircraft dropped 36, kilograms 79, pounds of bombs on Berlin.

Combat and operational losses for the Soviets tallied 17 aircraft destroyed and 70 crewmen killed. Harris said: "The Nazis entered this war under the rather childish delusion that they were going to bomb everyone else, and nobody was going to bomb them.

They sowed the wind, and now they are going to reap the whirlwind. At the same time, new bombers with longer ranges were coming into service, particularly the Avro Lancaster , which became available in large numbers during During most of , however, Bomber Command's priority was attacking Germany's U-boat ports as part of Britain's effort to win the Battle of the Atlantic.

During the whole of there were only nine air alerts in Berlin, none of them serious. The Battle of Berlin was launched by Harris in November , a concerted air campaign against the German capital, although other cities continued to be attacked to prevent the Germans concentrating their defences in Berlin.

Harris believed this could be the blow that would break German resistance. A prelude to the raids came from the De Havilland Mosquito , which hit the capital on 30 January , the tenth anniversary of the Nazis' Machtergreifung.

That same day, both Göring and Goebbels were known to be giving big speeches that were to be broadcast live by radio.

At precisely Later that day, No. These were great propaganda raids which—much as the Doolittle Raid on the Japanese home islands had done for boosting American morale in April —were a severe embarrassment for the German leadership.

Bomber Command decided that they had to mark the occasion with a raid on Berlin, and it was decided that the Mosquito was the right aircraft for the job.

Accordingly, No. The first raid of the battle occurred on 18—19 November Berlin was the main target, and was attacked by Avro Lancasters aided by four Mosquitos.

The city was under cloud and the damage was not severe. The second major raid was on the night of 22—23 November This was the most effective raid by the RAF on Berlin.

The raid caused extensive damage to the residential areas west of the centre, Tiergarten and Charlottenburg , Schöneberg and Spandau.

Because of the dry weather conditions, several firestorms ignited. The Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church was destroyed.

On 17 December, extensive damage was done to the Berlin railway system. By this time cumulative effect of the bombing campaign had made more than a quarter of Berlin's total living accommodation unusable.

On 15—16 February, important war industries were hit, including the large Siemensstadt area, with the centre and south-western districts sustaining most of the damage.

This was the largest raid by the RAF on Berlin. Raids continued until March These raids caused immense devastation and loss of life in Berlin.

The 22 November raid killed 2, Berliners and rendered , homeless. The following night, 1, were killed and , made homeless. During December and January regular raids killed hundreds of people each night and rendered between 20, and 80, homeless each time.

The 16 raids on Berlin cost Bomber Command more than aircraft, with their crews killed or captured.

This was a loss rate of 5. Having 25 aircraft destroyed meant that the fighting force of the squadron had to be replaced in three months.

At these rates Bomber Command would have been wiped out before Berlin. In , the U. Army and the Standard Oil company built a set of replicas of typical German working class housing estates, " German Village ", which would be of key importance in acquiring the know-how and experience necessary to carry out the firebombings on Berlin.

It was done with the assistance of Erich Mendelsohn , a Berlin architect who fled the Nazis in Jimmy Doolittle, had implemented a major change in fighter defense of USAAF strategic bomber formations that had bolstered the confidence of U.

Until that time, Allied bombers avoided contact with the Luftwaffe; now, the Americans used any method that would force the Luftwaffe into combat.

Implementing this policy, the United States looked toward Berlin. The Allies replaced their losses; the Luftwaffe could not. At the tail end of the Battle of Berlin the RAF made one last large raid on the city on the night of 24—25 March, losing 8.

Eisenhower and Spaatz made it clear that the attack on Berlin was of great political importance in that it was designed to assist the Soviet offensive on the Oder east of Berlin, and was essential for Allied unity.

In the raid, led by Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Rosenthal of the th Bombardment Group — commanding the entire First Air Division 's bomber force on this raid [41] — Friedrichstadt the newspaper district , and Luisenstadt both divided between the boroughs of Kreuzberg and Mitte , the central area and some other areas, such as Friedrichshain , were severely damaged.

The bombs used in this raid consisted mostly of high explosive ordnance and not incendiary munitions. The area that suffered the greatest damage did not include railway main lines , which were more northern Stadtbahn and southern Ringbahn , but did include two terminal stations of Berlin Anhalter and Potsdamer Bahnhof , the latter of which had already been out of service since due to bomb destruction.

The bombing was so dense that it caused a city fire spreading eastwards, driven by the wind, over the south of Friedrichstadt and the northwest of neighboured Luisenstadt.

The fire lasted for four days until it had burnt everything combustible in its range to ashes and after it had reached waterways, large thoroughfares, and parks that the fire could not jump over.

Due to the exhaustion of German supplies the German anti-aircraft defense was under-equipped and weak so that out of the 1, US aircraft committed, only 36 were shot down and their crews taken as prisoners-of-war.

Rosenthal was among those shot down and survived, but was rescued by the Soviet armed forces and eventually returned to England.

A number of monuments, such as French Luisenstadt Church, St. Michael's Church , St. Among the dead was Roland Freisler , the infamous head justice of the People's Court.

The death toll amounted to 2,, fewer than might have been expected because the raid took place in daytime with relatively few incendiary bombs.

The number of wounded amounted to 20,, and , were left homeless or " dehoused ". Another raid on 26 February [44] left another 80, people homeless.

Raids continued until April, when the Red Army was outside the city. In the last days of the war the Red Air Force also bombed Berlin, as well as using Ilyushin Il-2 and similar aircraft for low-level attacks from 28 March onwards.

By this time Berlin's civil defences and infrastructure were close to collapsing but civilian morale held. After the capture of Berlin, Soviet General Nikolai Bersarin said, referring to the Red Army's artillery and rocket bombardment, that:.

Estimates of the total number of dead in Berlin from air raids range from 20, to 50,; current German studies suggest the lower figure is more likely.

The Nazi regime was acutely aware of the political necessity of protecting the Reich capital against devastation from the air. By , however, the five huge public shelters Zoo, Anhalt Station, Humboldthain, Friedrichshain and Kleistpark were complete, offering shelter to 65, people.

Other shelters were built under government buildings, the best-known being the so-called Führerbunker under the Reich Chancellery building.

In addition, many U-Bahn stations were converted into shelters. The rest of the population had to make do with their own cellars.

In , the Germans decided to evacuate non-essential people from Berlin. By 1. An effort was made to evacuate all children from Berlin, but this was resisted by parents, and many evacuees soon made their way back to the city as was also the case in London in — The increasing shortage of manpower as the war dragged on meant that female labour was essential to keep Berlin's war industries going, so the evacuation of all women with children was not possible.

At the end of the city's population began to grow again as refugees fleeing the Red Army 's advance in the east began to pour into Berlin.

The Ostvertriebenen "refugees from the East" were officially denied permission to remain in Berlin for longer than two days and were housed in camps near to the city before being moved on westwards; it is estimated less than 50, managed to remain in Berlin.

By January the population was around 2. Another , or so were forced labor, mainly French Fremdarbeiter , "foreign workers", and Russian Ostarbeiter "eastern workers".

The key to the Flak area were three huge Flak towers Flaktürme , which provided enormously tough platforms for both searchlights and mm anti-aircraft guns as well as shelters Hochbunker for civilians.

The Flak guns were increasingly manned by the teenagers of the Hitler Youth as older men were drafted to the front.

After there was little fighter protection from the Luftwaffe , and the Flak defences were increasingly overwhelmed by the scale of the attacks.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on the. For the Soviet assault and capture of Berlin in , see Battle of Berlin.

Play media. Main article: Defence of the Reich. This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it. Roosevelt Appeal against aerial bombardment of civilian populations , 1 September Grayling, Among the Dead Cities Bloomsbury , p.

Murawski Obrona powietrzna III Rzeszy. Night operations September — June ] in Polish. Warsaw: Oficyna Wydawnicza Alma-Press. Retrieved 8 December Universal Newsreel.

Retrieved 20 February The U. Retrieved 30 December Archived from the original on 29 September

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Clay arrive in Berlin to take a look at the GDR barricade. On August 25, the first Internationale Funkausstellung, an electronics exhibition, to be held since opens at the trade fair grounds around the radio tower.

Large housing estates are built in West Berlin on the city outskirts until the end of the s construction on Gropiusstadt begins in and on Märkisches Viertel and Falkenhagener Feld in Apartment houses are also built during these years on Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse and at the Rathauspassagen , as well as on Karl-Marx-Allee as far as Strausberger Platz Kennedy visits the city on June 26 and in his famous speech [Film] in front of the Schöneberg Town Hall assures the people of Berlin of his solidarity with them.

On December 17, the signing of the first entry permit agreement allows West Berliners to visit relatives in the eastern part of the city and is valid for the period from 19 December to 5 January ; 1.

Further agreements follow in ,, and Soviet military aircraft disrupt the session with low flights over the Congress Hall and the sonic boom of supersonic planes.

Willy Brandt resigns as governing mayor on December 1 and assumes the office of deputy chancellor and foreign minister under Chancellor Kurt-Georg Kiesinger.

On June 2, the Berlin student Benno Ohnesorg is shot by a policeman during a student protest against the visit of the Shah of Persia to West Berlin a commemorative relief can be seen today at the Deutsche Oper opera house.

His death and the clashes that followed focus public attention on the student movement in Berlin. When Line 55 between Charlottenburg and Spandau is shut down on October 2, the streetcar era comes to an end for the time being in West Berlin.

Streetcars remain in service in East Berlin until reunification: afterwards, some lines are extended back into western boroughs.

The attempt to assassinate the Berlin student leader Rudi Dutschke on April 11 on the avenue Kurfürstendamm marks another dramatic climax in the conflicts surrounding the student movement in Berlin.

Willy Brandt SPD is elected chancellor on October 21 and indicates his interest in pursuing negotiations between the two German states.

On December 16, the western Allies propose talks to the Soviet Union aimed at solving problems related to Berlin. On April 19, a meter-high Lenin monument is unveiled at Leninplatz known as Platz der Vereinten Nationen starting in in the East Berlin borough of Friedrichshain.

It is dismantled in Ten direct telephones lines are reconnected between West and East Berlin on January 31 for the first time since It clarifies the ties between Berlin and the Federal Republic of Germany, thereby facilitating a number of practical arrangements benefiting the people of the city.

It goes into force on 3 June , along with subsequent agreements on transit traffic and travel and visitor possibilities. For more information, see Impressum.

Berlin in Brief. Skriv din sökfras. Bilden togs dagen efter när sovjetiska styrkor intagit Berlin.

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Ian Kershaw , Hitler. En biografi. Hans Kirchoff , Et menneske uden pas er ikke noget menneske.

Hans Lindberg , Svensk flyktingpolitik under internationellt tryck — The Soviet Army had conquered a city reduced to rubble and under martial law.

And the Red Army had Berlin just for them, the American, French and British army would only get there in a few months.

There are broken tanks engulfed in flames around the streets , makeshift barriers are everywhere, churches have been reduced to bombed out shelters.

German soldiers are been hauled to Siberia and the surviving women are cleaning the debris and trading whatever they can for survival. The Russian Army looks as tired as the defeated German soldiers.

This is Berlin in May , a summer most people that were there would never forget. This is why Berlin — Photos of the Aftermath is such an important book.

The pictures inside this book show a glimpse of Berlin during the last moments of the Third Reich.

These pictures were taken by Red Army photographers as the German Army was surrendering. Here you can finally see how impressive the destruction of Berlin really was.

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Berlin 1945 Video

3 comments on “Berlin 1945
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